Hatena::Groupastrobot

bonobo

bonobo

ボノボ

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/Bonobo-04.jpg/220px-Bonobo-04.jpg

  • promiscuity

界 : 動物界 Animalia

門 : 脊索動物門 Chordata

亜門 : 脊椎動物亜門 Vertebrata

綱 : 哺乳綱 Mammalia

目 : サル目 Primates

科 : ヒト科 Hominidae

属 : チンパンジー属 Pan

種 : ボノボ P. paniscus

ボノボ(Pan paniscus)は、動物界脊索動物門哺乳綱サル目(霊長目)ヒト科チンパンジー属に分類されるサル。以前はピグミーチンパンジーと呼ばれた。

低地にある熱帯雨林に生息する[2]。樹上棲だが、前肢の指関節外側を接地して地表を四足歩行(ナックルウォーク)することもある[2]。昼行性で、夜間になると樹上に日ごとに違う寝床を作って休む[2]。22-58平方キロメートルの行動圏内で生活し、1日あたり1.2-2.4キロメートルを移動する[2]。複数頭の異性が含まれる50-120頭の群れを形成して生活するが、複数頭の異性が含まれる6-15頭の群れに分散することが多い[2]。父系社会でオスは産まれた群れに留まるが、メスは思春期を迎えると別の群れに移動する[2]。個体間で緊張が高まると擬似的な交尾行動、オス同士で尻をつけあう、メス同士で性皮をこすりつけあうなどの行動により緊張をほぐす[2]。

食性は雑食で、植物の葉、芽、蜂蜜、昆虫、ミミズ、小型爬虫類、小型哺乳類などを食べる[2]。

授乳期間は4年。生後8-11年で思春期を迎え、生後14年で初産を迎える[2]。寿命は40年と考えられている[2]。

人間だけが行うと考えられていた正常位での性行動をボノボも行うことが発見されている。チンパンジーよりも直立二足歩行が得意で、食物を運ぶときなどに数十メートル二足で歩くことがある[脚注 1]。チンパンジーとは異なりボノボ同士の闘争はほとんど観察されていないため平和的な動物であると考えられることが多いが、雑食性で小動物や他種のサルを狩ることもある[脚注 2]。

野生のボノボ研究は、保護を目的とした生態学的な研究が行われている。しかし加納隆至が調査をはじめたコンゴ民主共和国(旧ザイール)の赤道州ワンバでは、直接観察による多様な研究が行われている。内戦の影響で調査が中断することもあったが、現在でも黒田末寿、古市剛史、伊谷原一らによって、20年以上にわたる長期研究が続けられている。

ボノボは動物園での飼育も行われているが、野生に比べると毛の抜け落ちたボノボが多い。原因は健康状態やストレスによるものと考えられている。

The bonobo (English pronunciation: /bəˈnoʊboʊ/[3][4] /ˈbɒnəboʊ/[5]), Pan paniscus, previously called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee,[6] is a great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan. The other species in genus Pan is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee. Although the name "chimpanzee" is sometimes used to refer to both species together, it is usually understood as referring to the common chimpanzee, while Pan paniscus is usually referred to as the bonobo.

The lifespan of a bonobo in captivity is about 40 years.[7] The lifespan in the wild is unknown.

Bonobos are far less aggressive than chimpanzees and other apes.[8]

The bonobo is endangered and is found in the wild only in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Along with the common chimpanzee, the bonobo is the closest extant relative to humans. Because the two species are not proficient swimmers, it is possible that the formation of the Congo River 1.5–2 million years ago led to the speciation of the bonobo. They live south of the river, and thereby were separated from the ancestors of the common chimpanzee, which live north of the river.[9]

German anatomist Ernst Schwarz is credited with having discovered the bonobo in 1928, based on his analysis of a skull in the Tervuren museum in Belgium that previously had been thought to have belonged to a juvenile chimpanzee. Schwarz published his findings in 1929.[10][11] In 1933, American anatomist Harold Coolidge offered a more detailed description of the bonobo, and elevated it to species status.[11][12] The American psychologist and primatologist Robert Yerkes was also one of the first scientists to notice major differences between bonobos and chimpanzees.[13] These were first discussed in detail in a study by Eduard Paul Tratz and Heinz Heck published in the early 1950s.[14]

The species is distinguished by relatively long legs, pink lips, dark face and tail-tuft through adulthood, and parted long hair on its head.

Bonobos are perceived to be matriarchal: females tend to collectively dominate males by forming alliances; females use their sexuality to control males; a male's rank in the social hierarchy is determined by his mother's rank.[15][16] However, there are also claims of a special role for the alpha male in group movement.[citation needed] The limited research on Bonobos in the wild was also taken to indicate that these matriarchal behaviors may be exaggerated by captivity, as well as by food provisioning by researchers in the field.[15] This view has recently been challenged, however, by Duke University's Vanessa Woods;[17] Woods noted in a radio interview[18] that she had observed bonobos in a spacious forested sanctuary in the DRC exhibiting the same sort of hypersexuality under these more naturalistic conditions; and, while she acknowledges a hierarchy among males, including an "alpha male", these males are less dominant than the dominant female.